%0 Journal Article
%J IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
%D 2010
%T Online Empirical Evaluation of Tracking Algorithms
%A Wu,Hao
%A Sankaranarayanan,A. C
%A Chellapa, Rama
%K Back
%K Biomedical imaging
%K Computer vision
%K Filtering
%K formal model validation techniques
%K formal verification
%K ground truth
%K Kanade Lucas Tomasi feature tracker
%K Karhunen-Loeve transforms
%K lighting
%K Markov processes
%K mean shift tracker
%K model validation.
%K online empirical evaluation
%K particle filtering (numerical methods)
%K Particle filters
%K Particle tracking
%K performance evaluation
%K receiver operating characteristic curves
%K Robustness
%K SNR
%K Statistics
%K Surveillance
%K time reversed Markov chain
%K tracking
%K tracking algorithms
%K visual tracking
%X Evaluation of tracking algorithms in the absence of ground truth is a challenging problem. There exist a variety of approaches for this problem, ranging from formal model validation techniques to heuristics that look for mismatches between track properties and the observed data. However, few of these methods scale up to the task of visual tracking, where the models are usually nonlinear and complex and typically lie in a high-dimensional space. Further, scenarios that cause track failures and/or poor tracking performance are also quite diverse for the visual tracking problem. In this paper, we propose an online performance evaluation strategy for tracking systems based on particle filters using a time-reversed Markov chain. The key intuition of our proposed methodology relies on the time-reversible nature of physical motion exhibited by most objects, which in turn should be possessed by a good tracker. In the presence of tracking failures due to occlusion, low SNR, or modeling errors, this reversible nature of the tracker is violated. We use this property for detection of track failures. To evaluate the performance of the tracker at time instant t, we use the posterior of the tracking algorithm to initialize a time-reversed Markov chain. We compute the posterior density of track parameters at the starting time t = 0 by filtering back in time to the initial time instant. The distance between the posterior density of the time-reversed chain (at t = 0) and the prior density used to initialize the tracking algorithm forms the decision statistic for evaluation. It is observed that when the data are generated by the underlying models, the decision statistic takes a low value. We provide a thorough experimental analysis of the evaluation methodology. Specifically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for tackling common challenges such as occlusion, pose, and illumination changes and provide the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, we also s how the applicability of the core ideas of the paper to other tracking algorithms such as the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) feature tracker and the mean-shift tracker.
%B IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
%V 32
%P 1443 - 1458
%8 2010/08//
%@ 0162-8828
%G eng
%N 8
%R 10.1109/TPAMI.2009.135
%0 Conference Paper
%B IEEE 24th International Conference on Data Engineering, 2008. ICDE 2008
%D 2008
%T Online Filtering, Smoothing and Probabilistic Modeling of Streaming data
%A Kanagal,B.
%A Deshpande, Amol
%K Data analysis
%K data streaming
%K declarative query
%K dynamic probabilistic model
%K Filtering
%K Global Positioning System
%K hidden Markov models
%K Monitoring
%K Monte Carlo methods
%K Noise generators
%K Noise measurement
%K online filtering
%K particle filter
%K particle filtering (numerical methods)
%K probabilistic database view
%K probability
%K Real time systems
%K real-time application
%K relational database system
%K Relational databases
%K sequential Monte Carlo algorithm
%K Smoothing methods
%K SQL
%X In this paper, we address the problem of extending a relational database system to facilitate efficient real-time application of dynamic probabilistic models to streaming data. We use the recently proposed abstraction of model-based views for this purpose, by allowing users to declaratively specify the model to be applied, and by presenting the output of the models to the user as a probabilistic database view. We support declarative querying over such views using an extended version of SQL that allows for querying probabilistic data. Underneath we use particle filters, a class of sequential Monte Carlo algorithms, to represent the present and historical states of the model as sets of weighted samples (particles) that are kept up-to-date as new data arrives. We develop novel techniques to convert the queries on the model-based view directly into queries over particle tables, enabling highly efficient query processing. Finally, we present experimental evaluation of our prototype implementation over several synthetic and real datasets, that demonstrates the feasibility of online modeling of streaming data using our system and establishes the advantages of tight integration between dynamic probabilistic models and databases.
%B IEEE 24th International Conference on Data Engineering, 2008. ICDE 2008
%I IEEE
%P 1160 - 1169
%8 2008/04/07/12
%@ 978-1-4244-1836-7
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICDE.2008.4497525
%0 Conference Paper
%B Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007. CVPR '07. IEEE Conference on
%D 2007
%T In Situ Evaluation of Tracking Algorithms Using Time Reversed Chains
%A Wu,Hao
%A Sankaranarayanan,A. C
%A Chellapa, Rama
%K (numerical
%K algorithm;Markov
%K chain;tracking
%K decision
%K density;time
%K detection;particle
%K Evaluation
%K evaluation;object
%K filter;performance
%K Filtering
%K Markov
%K methods);tracking;visual
%K processes;decision
%K reversed
%K servoing;
%K situ
%K statistics;in
%K strategy;posterior
%K systems;visual
%K theory;object
%K tracking
%K tracking;particle
%X Automatic evaluation of visual tracking algorithms in the absence of ground truth is a very challenging and important problem. In the context of online appearance modeling, there is an additional ambiguity involving the correctness of the appearance model. In this paper, we propose a novel performance evaluation strategy for tracking systems based on particle filter using a time reversed Markov chain. Starting from the latest observation, the time reversed chain is propagated back till the starting time t = 0 of the tracking algorithm. The posterior density of the time reversed chain is also computed. The distance between the posterior density of the time reversed chain (at t = 0) and the prior density used to initialize the tracking algorithm forms the decision statistic for evaluation. It is postulated that when the data is generated true to the underlying models, the decision statistic takes a low value. We empirically demonstrate the performance of the algorithm against various common failure modes in the generic visual tracking problem. Finally, we derive a small frame approximation that allows for very efficient computation of the decision statistic.
%B Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007. CVPR '07. IEEE Conference on
%P 1 - 8
%8 2007/06//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/CVPR.2007.382992
%0 Conference Paper
%B Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007. CVPR '07. IEEE Conference on
%D 2007
%T Multimodal Tracking for Smart Videoconferencing and Video Surveillance
%A Zotkin,Dmitry N
%A Raykar,V.C.
%A Duraiswami, Ramani
%A Davis, Larry S.
%K (numerical
%K 3D
%K algorithm;smart
%K analysis;least
%K approximations;particle
%K arrays;nonlinear
%K cameras;multiple
%K Carlo
%K estimator;multimodal
%K filter;self-calibration
%K Filtering
%K least
%K likelihood
%K methods);teleconferencing;video
%K methods;image
%K microphone
%K MOTION
%K motion;Monte-Carlo
%K problem;particle
%K processing;video
%K signal
%K simulations;maximum
%K squares
%K surveillance;
%K surveillance;Monte
%K tracking;multiple
%K videoconferencing;video
%X Many applications require the ability to track the 3-D motion of the subjects. We build a particle filter based framework for multimodal tracking using multiple cameras and multiple microphone arrays. In order to calibrate the resulting system, we propose a method to determine the locations of all microphones using at least five loudspeakers and under assumption that for each loudspeaker there exists a microphone very close to it. We derive the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, which reduces to the solution of the non-linear least squares problem. We verify the correctness and robustness of the multimodal tracker and of the self-calibration algorithm both with Monte-Carlo simulations and on real data from three experimental setups.
%B Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007. CVPR '07. IEEE Conference on
%P 1 - 2
%8 2007/06//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/CVPR.2007.383525
%0 Conference Paper
%B Computer Vision, 2007. ICCV 2007. IEEE 11th International Conference on
%D 2007
%T Probabilistic Fusion Tracking Using Mixture Kernel-Based Bayesian Filtering
%A Han,Bohyung
%A Joo,Seong-Wook
%A Davis, Larry S.
%K (numerical
%K adaptive
%K arrangement
%K Bayesian
%K Filtering
%K filtering;multiple
%K filters;probabilistic
%K fusion
%K fusion;tracking;
%K integration;mixture
%K kernel-based
%K methods);sensor
%K methods;array
%K particle
%K processing;particle
%K sensors;object
%K signal
%K system;blind
%K techniques;visual
%K tracking;Bayes
%K tracking;particle
%K tracking;sensor
%X Even though sensor fusion techniques based on particle filters have been applied to object tracking, their implementations have been limited to combining measurements from multiple sensors by the simple product of individual likelihoods. Therefore, the number of observations is increased as many times as the number of sensors, and the combined observation may become unreliable through blind integration of sensor observations - especially if some sensors are too noisy and non-discriminative. We describe a methodology to model interactions between multiple sensors and to estimate the current state by using a mixture of Bayesian filters - one filter for each sensor, where each filter makes a different level of contribution to estimate the combined posterior in a reliable manner. In this framework, an adaptive particle arrangement system is constructed in which each particle is allocated to only one of the sensors for observation and a different number of samples is assigned to each sensor using prior distribution and partial observations. We apply this technique to visual tracking in logical and physical sensor fusion frameworks, and demonstrate its effectiveness through tracking results.
%B Computer Vision, 2007. ICCV 2007. IEEE 11th International Conference on
%P 1 - 8
%8 2007/10//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICCV.2007.4408938
%0 Journal Article
%J Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on
%D 2007
%T Target Tracking Using a Joint Acoustic Video System
%A Cevher, V.
%A Sankaranarayanan,A. C
%A McClellan, J.H.
%A Chellapa, Rama
%K (numerical
%K acoustic
%K adaptive
%K appearance
%K approach;synchronization;time-delay
%K data
%K delay;acoustic
%K divergence;acoustic
%K estimate;joint
%K estimation;hidden
%K feature
%K filter;sliding
%K Filtering
%K fusion;multitarget
%K fusion;synchronisation;target
%K highways;direction-of-arrival
%K Kullback-Leibler
%K methods);sensor
%K model;particle
%K processing;
%K processing;automated
%K propagation
%K removal;optical
%K signal
%K system;multimodal
%K tracking;acoustic
%K tracking;direction-of-arrival
%K tracking;occlusion;online
%K tracking;particle
%K tracking;video
%K variable;visual
%K video
%K window;state-space
%X In this paper, a multitarget tracking system for collocated video and acoustic sensors is presented. We formulate the tracking problem using a particle filter based on a state-space approach. We first discuss the acoustic state-space formulation whose observations use a sliding window of direction-of-arrival estimates. We then present the video state space that tracks a target's position on the image plane based on online adaptive appearance models. For the joint operation of the filter, we combine the state vectors of the individual modalities and also introduce a time-delay variable to handle the acoustic-video data synchronization issue, caused by acoustic propagation delays. A novel particle filter proposal strategy for joint state-space tracking is introduced, which places the random support of the joint filter where the final posterior is likely to lie. By using the Kullback-Leibler divergence measure, it is shown that the joint operation of the filter decreases the worst case divergence of the individual modalities. The resulting joint tracking filter is quite robust against video and acoustic occlusions due to our proposal strategy. Computer simulations are presented with synthetic and field data to demonstrate the filter's performance
%B Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on
%V 9
%P 715 - 727
%8 2007/06//
%@ 1520-9210
%G eng
%N 4
%R 10.1109/TMM.2007.893340
%0 Journal Article
%J Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on
%D 2006
%T Robust and secure image hashing
%A Swaminathan,A.
%A Mao,Yinian
%A M. Wu
%K content-preserving
%K cryptography;
%K differential
%K distortions;
%K entropy;
%K Filtering
%K Fourier
%K functions;
%K hash
%K hashing;
%K image
%K modifications;
%K processing;
%K secure
%K theory;
%K transform;
%K transforms;
%X Image hash functions find extensive applications in content authentication, database search, and watermarking. This paper develops a novel algorithm for generating an image hash based on Fourier transform features and controlled randomization. We formulate the robustness of image hashing as a hypothesis testing problem and evaluate the performance under various image processing operations. We show that the proposed hash function is resilient to content-preserving modifications, such as moderate geometric and filtering distortions. We introduce a general framework to study and evaluate the security of image hashing systems. Under this new framework, we model the hash values as random variables and quantify its uncertainty in terms of differential entropy. Using this security framework, we analyze the security of the proposed schemes and several existing representative methods for image hashing. We then examine the security versus robustness tradeoff and show that the proposed hashing methods can provide excellent security and robustness.
%B Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on
%V 1
%P 215 - 230
%8 2006/06//
%@ 1556-6013
%G eng
%N 2
%R 10.1109/TIFS.2006.873601
%0 Conference Paper
%B Image Processing, 2006 IEEE International Conference on
%D 2006
%T Shape-Regulated Particle Filtering for Tracking Non-Rigid Objects
%A Jie Shao
%A Chellapa, Rama
%A Porikli, F.
%K (numerical
%K 2D
%K algorithm;affine
%K based
%K contour
%K detection;dynamic
%K detection;motion
%K detection;parameter
%K estimation;active
%K estimation;object
%K estimation;particle
%K Filtering
%K filtering;probabilistic
%K filters;
%K map;shape-regulation;affine
%K methods);tracking
%K model;nonrigid
%K MOTION
%K object
%K scenes;deformation
%K tracking;parameter
%K transform;cluttered
%K transforms;clutter;edge
%X This paper presents an active contour based algorithm for tracking non-rigid objects in heavily cluttered scenes. We decompose the non-rigid contour tracking problem into three subproblems: 2D motion estimation, deformation detection, and shape regulation. First, we employ a particle filter to estimate the affine transform parameters between successive frames. Second, by using a dynamic object model, we generate a probabilistic map of deformation to reshape its contour. Finally, we project the updated model onto a trained shape subspace to constrain deformations to be within possible object appearances. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the performance of the tracker
%B Image Processing, 2006 IEEE International Conference on
%P 2813 - 2816
%8 2006/10//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICIP.2006.312993
%0 Conference Paper
%B Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors, 2005. ICCD 2005. Proceedings. 2005 IEEE International Conference on
%D 2005
%T Algorithmic and architectural design methodology for particle filters in hardware
%A Sankaranarayanan,A. C
%A Chellapa, Rama
%A Srivastava, A.
%K (numerical
%K algorithmic
%K architectural
%K architectures;
%K bearing
%K complexity;
%K computational
%K design
%K digital
%K evolution;
%K Filtering
%K filtering;
%K filters;
%K implementation;
%K methodology;
%K methods);
%K nonGaussian
%K nonlinear
%K only
%K Parallel
%K particle
%K pipeline
%K pipelined
%K problem;
%K processing;
%K state
%K tracking
%K VLSI
%K VLSI;
%X In this paper, we present algorithmic and architectural methodology for building particle filters in hardware. Particle filtering is a new paradigm for filtering in presence of nonGaussian nonlinear state evolution and observation models. This technique has found wide-spread application in tracking, navigation, detection problems especially in a sensing environment. So far most particle filtering implementations are not lucrative for real time problems due to excessive computational complexity involved. In this paper, we re-derive the particle filtering theory to make it more amenable to simplified VLSI implementations. Furthermore, we present and analyze pipelined architectural methodology for designing these computational blocks. Finally, we present an application using the bearing only tracking problem and evaluate the proposed architecture and algorithmic methodology.
%B Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors, 2005. ICCD 2005. Proceedings. 2005 IEEE International Conference on
%P 275 - 280
%8 2005/10//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICCD.2005.20
%0 Conference Paper
%B Computer Vision, 2005. ICCV 2005. Tenth IEEE International Conference on
%D 2005
%T Fast multiple object tracking via a hierarchical particle filter
%A Yang,Changjiang
%A Duraiswami, Ramani
%A Davis, Larry S.
%K (numerical
%K algorithm;
%K analysis;
%K Color
%K colour
%K Computer
%K Convergence
%K detection;
%K edge
%K fast
%K filter;
%K Filtering
%K hierarchical
%K histogram;
%K image
%K images;
%K integral
%K likelihood;
%K methods);
%K methods;
%K multiple
%K numerical
%K object
%K observation
%K of
%K orientation
%K particle
%K processes;
%K quasirandom
%K random
%K sampling;
%K tracking
%K tracking;
%K vision;
%K visual
%X A very efficient and robust visual object tracking algorithm based on the particle filter is presented. The method characterizes the tracked objects using color and edge orientation histogram features. While the use of more features and samples can improve the robustness, the computational load required by the particle filter increases. To accelerate the algorithm while retaining robustness we adopt several enhancements in the algorithm. The first is the use of integral images for efficiently computing the color features and edge orientation histograms, which allows a large amount of particles and a better description of the targets. Next, the observation likelihood based on multiple features is computed in a coarse-to-fine manner, which allows the computation to quickly focus on the more promising regions. Quasi-random sampling of the particles allows the filter to achieve a higher convergence rate. The resulting tracking algorithm maintains multiple hypotheses and offers robustness against clutter or short period occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for single and multiple object tracking.
%B Computer Vision, 2005. ICCV 2005. Tenth IEEE International Conference on
%V 1
%P 212 - 219 Vol. 1 - 212 - 219 Vol. 1
%8 2005/10//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICCV.2005.95
%0 Journal Article
%J IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
%D 2005
%T MCMC-based particle filtering for tracking a variable number of interacting targets
%A Zia Khan
%A Balch, T.
%A Dellaert, F.
%K algorithms
%K Animals
%K Artificial intelligence
%K Computer simulation
%K Computer vision
%K Filtering
%K filtering theory
%K HUMANS
%K Image Enhancement
%K Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
%K Index Terms- Particle filters
%K Information Storage and Retrieval
%K Insects
%K interacting targets
%K Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling step
%K Markov chain Monte Carlo.
%K Markov chains
%K Markov processes
%K Markov random field motion
%K Markov random fields
%K Models, Biological
%K Models, Statistical
%K Monte Carlo Method
%K Monte Carlo methods
%K MOTION
%K Movement
%K multitarget filter
%K multitarget tracking
%K particle filtering
%K Particle filters
%K Particle tracking
%K Pattern Recognition, Automated
%K Sampling methods
%K Subtraction Technique
%K target tracking
%K Video Recording
%X We describe a particle filter that effectively deals with interacting targets, targets that are influenced by the proximity and/or behavior of other targets. The particle filter includes a Markov random field (MRF) motion prior that helps maintain the identity of targets throughout an interaction, significantly reducing tracker failures. We show that this MRF prior can be easily implemented by including an additional interaction factor in the importance weights of the particle filter. However, the computational requirements of the resulting multitarget filter render it unusable for large numbers of targets. Consequently, we replace the traditional importance sampling step in the particle filter with a novel Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling step to obtain a more efficient MCMC-based multitarget filter. We also show how to extend this MCMC-based filter to address a variable number of interacting targets. Finally, we present both qualitative and quantitative experimental results, demonstrating that the resulting particle filters deal efficiently and effectively with complicated target interactions.
%B IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
%V 27
%P 1805 - 1819
%8 2005/11//
%@ 0162-8828
%G eng
%N 11
%0 Conference Paper
%B Image Processing, 2005. ICIP 2005. IEEE International Conference on
%D 2005
%T Robust observations for object tracking
%A Han,Bohyung
%A Davis, Larry S.
%K (numerical
%K adaptive
%K analysis;
%K component
%K enhancement;
%K filter
%K Filtering
%K framework;
%K image
%K images;
%K likelihood
%K methods);
%K object
%K observation
%K particle
%K PCA;
%K principal
%K tracking;
%X It is a difficult task to find an observation model that will perform well for long-term visual tracking. In this paper, we propose an adaptive observation enhancement technique based on likelihood images, which are derived from multiple visual features. The most discriminative likelihood image is extracted by principal component analysis (PCA) and incrementally updated frame by frame to reduce temporal tracking error. In the particle filter framework, the feasibility of each sample is computed using this most discriminative likelihood image before the observation process. Integral image is employed for efficient computation of the feasibility of each sample. We illustrate how our enhancement technique contributes to more robust observations through demonstrations.
%B Image Processing, 2005. ICIP 2005. IEEE International Conference on
%V 2
%P II - 442-5 - II - 442-5
%8 2005/09//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICIP.2005.1530087
%0 Conference Paper
%B Multimedia Signal Processing, 2004 IEEE 6th Workshop on
%D 2004
%T Image hashing resilient to geometric and filtering operations
%A Swaminathan,A.
%A Mao,Yinian
%A M. Wu
%K compact
%K cryptographic
%K cryptography;
%K discrete
%K distortion;
%K Filtering
%K Fourier
%K function;
%K geometric
%K hash
%K image
%K key
%K key;
%K operation;
%K polar
%K PROCESSING
%K public
%K representation;
%K theory;
%K transform;
%K transforms;
%X Image hash functions provide compact representations of images, which is useful for search and authentication applications. In this work, we have identified a general three step framework and proposed a new image hashing scheme that achieves a better overall performance than the existing approaches under various kinds of image processing distortions. By exploiting the properties of discrete polar Fourier transform and incorporating cryptographic keys, the proposed image hash is resilient to geometric and filtering operations, and is secure against guessing and forgery attacks.
%B Multimedia Signal Processing, 2004 IEEE 6th Workshop on
%P 355 - 358
%8 2004/10/01/sept
%G eng
%R 10.1109/MMSP.2004.1436566
%0 Journal Article
%J IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
%D 2004
%T Visual tracking and recognition using appearance-adaptive models in particle filters
%A Zhou,Shaohua Kevin
%A Chellapa, Rama
%A Moghaddam, B.
%K adaptive filters
%K adaptive noise variance
%K algorithms
%K appearance-adaptive model
%K Artificial intelligence
%K Cluster Analysis
%K Computer Graphics
%K Computer simulation
%K Feedback
%K Filtering
%K first-order linear predictor
%K hidden feature removal
%K HUMANS
%K Image Enhancement
%K Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
%K image recognition
%K Information Storage and Retrieval
%K Kinematics
%K Laboratories
%K Male
%K Models, Biological
%K Models, Statistical
%K MOTION
%K Movement
%K Noise robustness
%K Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted
%K occlusion analysis
%K Particle filters
%K Particle tracking
%K Pattern Recognition, Automated
%K Predictive models
%K Reproducibility of results
%K robust statistics
%K Sensitivity and Specificity
%K Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
%K State estimation
%K statistical analysis
%K Subtraction Technique
%K tracking
%K Training data
%K visual recognition
%K visual tracking
%X We present an approach that incorporates appearance-adaptive models in a particle filter to realize robust visual tracking and recognition algorithms. Tracking needs modeling interframe motion and appearance changes, whereas recognition needs modeling appearance changes between frames and gallery images. In conventional tracking algorithms, the appearance model is either fixed or rapidly changing, and the motion model is simply a random walk with fixed noise variance. Also, the number of particles is typically fixed. All these factors make the visual tracker unstable. To stabilize the tracker, we propose the following modifications: an observation model arising from an adaptive appearance model, an adaptive velocity motion model with adaptive noise variance, and an adaptive number of particles. The adaptive-velocity model is derived using a first-order linear predictor based on the appearance difference between the incoming observation and the previous particle configuration. Occlusion analysis is implemented using robust statistics. Experimental results on tracking visual objects in long outdoor and indoor video sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm. We then perform simultaneous tracking and recognition by embedding them in a particle filter. For recognition purposes, we model the appearance changes between frames and gallery images by constructing the intra- and extrapersonal spaces. Accurate recognition is achieved when confronted by pose and view variations.
%B IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
%V 13
%P 1491 - 1506
%8 2004/11//
%@ 1057-7149
%G eng
%N 11
%R 10.1109/TIP.2004.836152
%0 Conference Paper
%B Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on
%D 2003
%T Adaptive visual tracking and recognition using particle filters
%A Zhou,Shaohua
%A Chellapa, Rama
%A Moghaddam, B.
%K adaptive
%K adaptive-velocity
%K appearance
%K extra-personal
%K Filtering
%K filters;
%K image
%K intra-personal
%K model;
%K MOTION
%K particle
%K processing;
%K recognition;
%K sequence;
%K sequences;
%K series
%K signal
%K spaces;
%K theory;
%K TIME
%K tracking;
%K video
%K visual
%X This paper presents an improved method for simultaneous tracking and recognition of human faces from video, where a time series model is used to resolve the uncertainties in tracking and recognition. The improvements mainly arise from three aspects: (i) modeling the inter-frame appearance changes within the video sequence using an adaptive appearance model and an adaptive-velocity motion model; (ii) modeling the appearance changes between the video frames and gallery images by constructing intra- and extra-personal spaces; and (iii) utilization of the fact that the gallery images are in frontal views. By embedding them in a particle filter, we are able to achieve a stabilized tracker and an accurate recognizer when confronted by pose and illumination variations.
%B Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on
%V 2
%P II - 349-52 vol.2 - II - 349-52 vol.2
%8 2003/07//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICME.2003.1221625
%0 Conference Paper
%B 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003. (IROS 2003). Proceedings
%D 2003
%T Efficient particle filter-based tracking of multiple interacting targets using an MRF-based motion model
%A Zia Khan
%A Balch, T.
%A Dellaert, F.
%K collision avoidance
%K computational cost
%K Computational efficiency
%K Educational institutions
%K exponential complexity
%K Filtering
%K filtering theory
%K Insects
%K joint particle tracker
%K Markov processes
%K Markov random field motion
%K Markov random fields
%K multiple interacting targets
%K particle filter-based tracking
%K Particle filters
%K Particle tracking
%K Radar tracking
%K social insect tracking application
%K target tracking
%K Trajectory
%X We describe a multiple hypothesis particle filter for tracking targets that are influenced by the proximity and/or behavior of other targets. Our contribution is to show how a Markov random field motion prior, built on the fly at each time step, can model these interactions to enable more accurate tracking. We present results for a social insect tracking application, where we model the domain knowledge that two targets cannot occupy the same space, and targets actively avoid collisions. We show that using this model improves track quality and efficiency. Unfortunately, the joint particle tracker we propose suffers from exponential complexity in the number of tracked targets. An approximation to the joint filter, however, consisting of multiple nearly independent particle filters can provide similar track quality at substantially lower computational cost.
%B 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2003. (IROS 2003). Proceedings
%V 1
%P 254 - 259 vol.1
%8 2003/10//
%G eng
%0 Conference Paper
%B Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on
%D 2003
%T Shape and motion driven particle filtering for human body tracking
%A Yamamoto, T.
%A Chellapa, Rama
%K 3D
%K body
%K broadcast
%K camera;
%K cameras;
%K estimation;
%K Filtering
%K framework;
%K human
%K image
%K MOTION
%K motion;
%K particle
%K processing;
%K rotational
%K sequence;
%K sequences;
%K signal
%K single
%K static
%K theory;
%K tracking;
%K TV
%K video
%X In this paper, we propose a method to recover 3D human body motion from a video acquired by a single static camera. In order to estimate the complex state distribution of a human body, we adopt the particle filtering framework. We present the human body using several layers of representation and compose the whole body step by step. In this way, more effective particles are generated and ineffective particles are removed as we process each layer. In order to deal with the rotational motion, the frequency of rotation is obtained using a preprocessing operation. In the preprocessing step, the variance of the motion field at each image is computed, and the frequency of rotation is estimated. The estimated frequency is used for the state update in the algorithm. We successfully track the movement of figure skaters in TV broadcast image sequence, and recover the 3D shape and motion of the skater.
%B Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference on
%V 3
%P III - 61-4 vol.3 - III - 61-4 vol.3
%8 2003/07//
%G eng
%R 10.1109/ICME.2003.1221248
%0 Journal Article
%J Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on
%D 2002
%T Optimal edge-based shape detection
%A Moon, H.
%A Chellapa, Rama
%A Rosenfeld, A.
%K 1D
%K 2D
%K aerial
%K analysis;
%K boundary
%K conditions;
%K contour
%K cross
%K detection;
%K DODE
%K double
%K edge
%K edge-based
%K error
%K error;
%K exponential
%K extraction;
%K facial
%K feature
%K filter
%K filter;
%K Filtering
%K function;
%K geometry;
%K global
%K human
%K images;
%K imaging
%K localization
%K mean
%K methods;
%K NOISE
%K operator;
%K optimal
%K optimisation;
%K output;
%K performance;
%K pixel;
%K power;
%K propagation;
%K properties;
%K section;
%K SHAPE
%K square
%K squared
%K statistical
%K step
%K theory;
%K tracking;
%K two-dimensional
%K vehicle
%K video;
%X We propose an approach to accurately detecting two-dimensional (2-D) shapes. The cross section of the shape boundary is modeled as a step function. We first derive a one-dimensional (1-D) optimal step edge operator, which minimizes both the noise power and the mean squared error between the input and the filter output. This operator is found to be the derivative of the double exponential (DODE) function, originally derived by Ben-Arie and Rao (1994). We define an operator for shape detection by extending the DODE filter along the shape's boundary contour. The responses are accumulated at the centroid of the operator to estimate the likelihood of the presence of the given shape. This method of detecting a shape is in fact a natural extension of the task of edge detection at the pixel level to the problem of global contour detection. This simple filtering scheme also provides a tool for a systematic analysis of edge-based shape detection. We investigate how the error is propagated by the shape geometry. We have found that, under general assumptions, the operator is locally linear at the peak of the response. We compute the expected shape of the response and derive some of its statistical properties. This enables us to predict both its localization and detection performance and adjust its parameters according to imaging conditions and given performance specifications. Applications to the problem of vehicle detection in aerial images, human facial feature detection, and contour tracking in video are presented.
%B Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on
%V 11
%P 1209 - 1227
%8 2002/11//
%@ 1057-7149
%G eng
%N 11
%R 10.1109/TIP.2002.800896